1 mt KAHOOLAWE SIGNOVER D 5 7 94May 7, 1994, at Palauea, Maui. Throughout the day hundreds, thousands of people arriving by car, bus, boat, on foot. Kānaka on the beach, on the lawn, in the house. Someone set up a stage and a sound system. Musicians toting their instruments.  Military personnel in dress whites. Kūpuna seated in the shade. Pū practice at the shoreline. Keiki playing in the water. Canoes offshore. On the horizon, an island. Kaho‘olawe. Kohemālamalama o Kanaloa.

The ceremony had begun. Not regalia, pomp, and circumstance, but the ceremony of numerous humans engaged in discrete tasks, at different paces, with a singular purpose, converging in harmony. Lōkahi.

Congress convened the Kaho‘olawe Island Conveyance Commission, or KICC, in 1991 following the end of the bombing of the island to make an assessment and recommendations as to the future of this island. The U.S. was going to fund the cleanup of ordnance and rehabilitate the island to a useable status. Smartly, a conveyance of control from the U.S. Navy to the State of Hawai‘i to hold in trust for a future Hawaiian sovereign entity was planned before the 10-year cleanup was to commence. Had it been devised to occur upon certification for safe use following the cleanup, the island would still be in military hands today.

This week, we are reminded that less than 10% of the land surface was cleared to a depth of 4 feet, far short of the goal of 30%; 75% of the island is surfaced cleared, much less than the agreed upon 100%.  Access to uncleared areas is restricted and free roam areas are explicitly marked.

Someone had a master plan that day in May. I just showed up with all my weekend needs in a dry bag and a willingness to kōkua. A few people had rooms at a nearby resort the preceding Friday night; every corner had sleeping bodies. I spent the morning shredding kalua turkey chatting with a familiar-looking guy named Charlie. In the afternoon, I served water and lunch plates to the kūpuna under the tent. Music was non-stop.

2 mt KAHOOLAWE SIGNOVER 5 7 94Soon, Dr. Noa Emmett Aluli, Governor John Waihe‘e, Undersecretary of the Navy William J. Cassidy, and a couple of others were on stage signing deeds to the island on a table from the Ke‘anae kitchen of Uncle Harry Mitchell.  A line of pū blowers the length of Palauea Beach faced Kanaloa Kaho‘olawe and blew those shells 100 times. Canoes neared shore to take 100 people to continue the ceremony on island. Somehow, I made the cut. I talked story with Uncle Les and the kāne kia‘i.

The ceremonies continued in Hakioawa, commitments were made over ‘awa at Hakioawa, and Kaho‘olawe belonged to the people. Belongs to the people.

That day signaled renewal. Self-determination. The first ‘āina belonging to the future Hawaiian sovereign entity. “One down, seven to go.” 

Understanding the underlying causes of the Kanaka Maoli plight identified by Dr. Kekuni Blaisdell—depopulation, the threat of being a minority in one’s own homeland; the loss of lands due to colonization; cultural conflict; despair and self-destruction; and racism—the return of Kaho‘olawe to the people of Hawai‘i from the strongest military power in the world was empowering.

Jeff Akaka Kekuni Hakioawa 2000

New work commenced, new technologies were innovated. We were hopeful and energized. Huaka‘i, visits to the island, continued for cultural, educational, religious, and scientific purposes.

A young social worker named Julie took a women’s group she was working with to Kaho‘olawe, encouraging them to participate in the revegetation activities during the day, identify the lessons the island has to offer, and maintain their journals at each day’s end. The women, all in different stages of healing, immediately recognized the island—which had been bombed for nearly 50 years—as a metaphor for one’s personal recovery from trauma and abuse. Not much later a Hawaiian psychologist took a group of men, who experienced similar sensations, same outcomes.

The Native Hawaiian Health & Wellness Summit, hosted by Papa Ola Lōkahi in 1998, offered each island the opportunity to hold ‘aha, island gatherings, to bring the people together to identify the priorities for health and wellness. Kaho‘olawe—the smallest, least populated island—held three ‘aha, identifying the characteristics and practices of well-being, some of which are:

  1. On-island co-existing: experiencing rites of passage not often undertaken in modern times, ‘ohana or kauhale communal living, kōkua and laulima, substance-free environment, history that provides into the lives of po‘e kahiko; cultural protocol and other practices; and resource management
  2. Wahi pana, wahi kapu: encouraging focus, particularly during specific ceremonies such as Makahiki; kapu kai, a cleansing of body, mind, and soul; self-reflection and renewal; and different types of rites of passage
  3. Stewardship training provides Kaho‘olawe as a model for how places on our home islands can be protected. Healthy environments derive healthy people.
  4. Leadership training. The Protect Kaho‘olawe ‘Ohana is a living model for grassroots organization bringing people together from all islands as an ‘ohana with a common cause. Organized intergenerationally and a history of unprecedented kūpuna support, thus a built-in spiritual base. The ‘Ohana continues to mentor and produce new generations of leaders.

DeeAnn Martina Emmett Hakioawa Kahoolawe April 2021

Kaho‘olawe Healing was recognized and we made more intentional efforts to develop curricula featuring the lessons of the island. In 2000, we took the first group of Hawaiian health professionals to camp at Hakioawa with similar results. Each huaka‘i has had a theme, cross-disciplinary teachings and a convergence of shared understandings of different healing and environmental practices. Just this week a group of Hawaiian physicians is championing regular trips with medical students to lay a foundation for their budding careers. A solid foundation.

I am an advocate of facilitating huaka‘i for those who are on the fringe, in the margins, who are seeking, searching, healing, mending. I have found that it isn’t necessary to tell people what the island has to offer, because each will have her or his own personal—usually deep and profound—experiences. Absent the clutter of modern life, the lessons of Kanaloa Kaho‘olawe surface immediately.

On May 7, 1994, a tiny, abused, sacred, recovering island was returned to Hawaiian hands, providing inspiration to the lāhui to thrive, to reclaim the lōkahi and well-being of our ancestors. Forests are planted one seed at a time. Lands are reclaimed one island at a time.

Healing an island, healing a people, healing a nation.

~ Na Kim Ku‘ulei Birnie




  1. Maui News
  2. Maui News
  3. Drs. Jeffrey Akaka & Kekuni Blaisdell, swimming to shore, Kahoolawe, 2000.  Photo by KKBirnie
  4. Drs. Dee-Ann Carpenter, Martina Kamaka, Noa Emmett Aluli, Hakioawa, Kahoolawe, April 2021.  Photo courtesy Dee-Ann L. Carpenter.
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Holo iʻa ka papa, kau ʻia e ka manu. Where there is food, people gather.  

Food is central in every culture, fostering traditions and a sense of community, while also providing us with the nutrients we need to live. In ‘Ai Pono, we will explore the interconnectedness of Native Hawaiian food systems and access, nutrition, and sustainability. Through this series, we will attempt to draw connections between traditional Native Hawaiian food and health/well-being.

When we think about nutrition, we may not necessarily consider how our present health may have been impacted by our health as young as when we were infants

During infancy, nutrition is especially important, as it is a period that can be linked with healthduring later stages of life. Studies have shown that early feeding practices can play a significant role in preventing diseases and promoting health.¹

thumbnail IMG 8722Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla, an associate professor in the Department of Human Nutrition, Food, and Animal Sciences at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, spoke about the importance of good nutrition during infancy. 

The likelihood for being overweight, when (babies are) older, can be influenced by, their diet during infancy. ... There's just lots of evidence that suggests that, through healthy complementary feeding, having a diverse diet, it's going to improve their health outcomes, reduce their likelihood for chronic disease, she said. 

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines complementary foods as the solidfoods that guardians introduce when infants reach a stage in which breast milk or formula can no longer provide them with all the nutrients they need. They are complementary because they are solid foods that guardians introduce along with breast milk or formula

As the foods that infants are eating to help them grow into healthy children, there are four important considerations that the WHO suggests guardians take into account when selecting and preparing complementary foods for their infants.

“We should … think about the best diet, the best foods. We want to be setting them up for success,” Dr. Fialkowski Revilla said.

The first consideration the WHO notes is timing – when to introduce complementary foods to infants. Typically, babies are ready for complementary foods when they are around 6 months old. Timing is important as it can impact the infant’s likelihood of becoming overweight or obese at later stages in life, as well as their growth and development. ²

The second is ensuring that the foods are providing adequate nutrition, energy, protein, and micronutrients.² Fialkowski Revilla said it's important that complementary foods are high in iron and zinc, as breastmilk and formula do not provide enough at the 6-month stage.

“With complementary foods, you really want to focus on the vegetables – poi, starchy roots,” she said.

The third consideration is ensuring that the foods are safe – stored and preparedhygienically.² 

The final consideration is ensuring infants are being fed enough and in the right frequency for their needs and age. The WHO recommends starting off with mashed foods or semi-solid when babies are between 6-8 months old, and that guardians feed babies from two to three times a day, increasing to feeding them three to four times a day when they are around 9 months old. By the time infants are around 1 year old, the WHO recommends introducing children to the foods the family is eating. ² 

On top of the WHO's considerations, Fialkowski Revilla notes that the diversity of complementary foods is especially important.

You're more likely to meet your nutrient needs if you're eating a diverse group of foods, Fialkowski Revilla said. Encoura(ge) exploration. If you're exploring, and you're exploring with your keiki, they're going to be more likely to be adventurous. That's the other thing too, is that you want your kids to be adventurous eaters. And the only way they're going to be adventurous is if you expose them to lots of different flavors. And so that they're willing to try.We want them to be willing to try. And if they're willing to try, then they're more likely to like the food.”

Traditional Native Hawaiian foods hold a lot of nutritional benefits for babies, along with having cultural value.

We have a lot of really great traditional foods here, and we want to make our babies ʻono for those foods, Fialkowski Revilla said. Those cultural foods are very meaningful. They carry a lot of value and spiritual benefit, and, with the idea too of the mana and food and things like that, it's such a shared experience.

Some examples of traditional Hawaiian complementary foods caninclude ʻuala (breadfruit), poi, mashed kukui nuts, sauces made with opihi, ʻaʻama (crab), and vegetables and herbs.³

Our traditional foods, like when we think about lūʻau – the green leaves – I mean, that is packed (with) so many nutrients. It's so good – vitamins, the fiber – and it just tastes ʻono, she said.

In one of her studies, Fialkowski Revilla found that poi was an especially popular first food among moms. Poi is a good example of a complementary food because it's versatile, its consistency can be modified based on the baby's development, and it's nutrient-dense with minerals, vitamins, and fiber, Fialkowski Revilla said. She also noted that some moms mixed poi with breast milk or formula, others with sweet potato or rice cereal. 

As important as nutrition is for infants, Fialkowski Revilla noted how nutrition is very much a family effort.

“We say that we want babies to be eating diverse diets, I think it goes the same for families,” Fialkowski Revilla said. “If they see mommy eating it, they see daddy eating it, they see brother and sister eating it, they see grandma eating, if they see everybody eating it, then they're going to be more likely to want to eat it. So, I would say it's not something that's in isolation. If everybody's working together, it's much easier to live that healthy lifestyle.”

In one of the studies Fialkowski Revilla did, she found that many mothers were seeking feeding advice within their own families – their moms, mothers-in-law, sisters, or aunties.

“We need to really think about our families, and the communities that our families live in, the policies that influenced the communities that our families live in.  I think it's not just a simple strategy to ensuring that our babies are eating well. Our families have to eat well, our mommies have to eat well, our communities have to have access to be able to eat well, everything is all connected,” she said. “The more we can involve everyone, so the whole family is involved in kind of preparing the meal and putting it together, everybody has kuleana.”

While it's important for babies to eat diverse diets, Fialkowski Revilla notes that exploring food doesn’t have to be exclusive to babies

“You want them to pick up and be exposed to lots of different textures. It's kind of like they're playing with their food, they're exploring with your food, and so why can't we also explore foods, explore different pairings, or explore different ways to make food? Just don't be afraid.Sometimes it'll come out great, and sometimes it may not come out that great, but it's OK, right? Because we're having fun with her food,” she said. 

One way Fialkowski Revilla suggested experimenting with foods is by modernizing traditional Native Hawaiian foods.

“So, our traditional foods – instead of eating (just) poi, add it with some fruit, throw some granola on there. You can kind of modernize some of the foods, too, so that you can incorporate them into your diet in multiple different ways,” she said.  

Currently, Fialkowski Revilla is doing a study that tracks through photos that moms upload to a mobile app what babies eat throughout their first year. She hopes her study will provide pertinent data and information that comes from the community and ensures that foods and support programs, health promotion events, and activities are being delivered in an appropriate and acceptable way that addresses the needs of the community.

Ultimately, I want a thriving lāhui. I want a healthy lāhui. I want our babies to grow up to be healthy adults, she said. “Ithink we could all learn from babies, right? If we can all eat diverse we're going to do pretty good if we can drink water, we're going to do pretty good.

~ Na Maris Tasaka, Communications Assistant


Marie Kainoa Fialkowski Revilla is an associate professor in the Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa's College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Her research focuses on nutrition and health in indigenous populations and infant nutrition. Fialkowski Revilla grew up in Waiāhole Valley and graduated from Maryknoll School. She got her undergraduate degree from Dartmouth College and received her master's degree and PhD from Purdue University.  


If you are interested in participating in Fialkowski Revilla's current study, are 18 years old or older, Native Hawaiian, and an Oʻahu resident, you can contact 808-375-3785 for more information or email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Further Readings/Media


  1. Fialkowski, Marie K et al. “Type, Timing, and Diversity of Complementary Foods Among Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Filipino Infants.” Hawaiʻi Journal of Health & Social Welfare vol. 79,5 Suppl 1 (2020): 127-134. 
  1. “Complementary Feeding.” World Health Organizationwww.who.int/health-topics/complementary-feeding#tab=tab_1
  1. Fialkowski, Marie K, et al. “Native Hawaiian Complementary Feeding Practices as Told by Grandparents: A Transgenerational Experience.” Current Developments in Nutrition, 26 May 2020, doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa086.
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Holoiʻa ka papa, kau ʻia e ka manu. Where there is food, people gather.   

Food is central in every culture, fostering traditions and a sense of community, while also providing us with the nutrients we need to live. In ‘Ai Pono, we will explore the interconnectedness of Native Hawaiian food systems and access, nutrition, and sustainability. Through this series, we will attempt to draw connections between traditional Native Hawaiian food and health/well-being.  


When doing a Google Image search for "Hawaiʻi foods," a multitude of photos of shave ice and SPAM pop up. And for many Hawaiʻi residents, these foods are staples. Although, we may not necessarily think about the history behind these foods and their connection with settler colonialism. 


"The reason why these foods kind of rise to the surface as emblematic foods of Hawaiʻi, I think, has everything to do with the way that Hawaiians have been subject to being reduced to just another ethnic category in Hawaiʻi," said Hiʻilei Julia Kawehipuaakahaopulani Hobart, who was born and raised in Kailua and attended Assets School.


Hobart, who is now an assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin, spoke about how Hawaiʻi's food scene has been impacted by historical structures of settler colonization.


"We can think about the arrival of the missionaries in the early 19th century and the way that really begins an early influence on ideas that have to do with race, food, and health. Hawaiʻi's local cuisine, becomes this amalgamation of different food traditions that are brought in by immigrant communities to Hawai, particularly through the plantation complex, become a really key identifying marker for people who understand themselves to have kind of a pilina relationship to Hawaiʻi." 


With the colonization of Hawaiʻi came the spread of disease, the loss of land that Hawaiians used to grow traditional foods like kalo, and a breakdown of agricultural systems in favor of monocultures.¹ Hawaiʻi's food scene drastically changed after colonization as land previously devoted to growing food intended for local use was converted to land used to grow food like rice, sugar, and pineapple for exportation.² Innovations in transportation and shipping companies like Matson, which was introduced in Hawaiʻi in 1882, also made it easier to import foods from the Pacific Coast to Hawaiʻi.³ Today, Hawaiʻi imports around 85-90% of its food.⁴ 


"(Hawaiʻi's) over-reliance on importation really speaks to the precarity that settler colonial structures kind of rely upon in order to subjugate marginalized peoples, dispossessed peoples," Hobart said.  

Hiilei PuuHuluhuu 2019 07 crop1 resized


Hobart also discussed the development of what is termed the "cold chain" – a refrigerated food chain that facilitates the globalization of the food system. For example, a Hawaiʻi resident could purchase a banana grown in South America, shipped to California, and then shipped to Hawaiʻi, despite Hawaiʻi being capable of growing its own bananas.  


"It diverts food gathering practices away from ʻāina and water-based practice from farming and fishing – getting your food fresh. But also, it requires people to be completely reliant on energy infrastructures that have an exploitative relationship with people in Hawaiʻi," Hobart said. "When we think about the cold chain, and Hawaiʻi's reliance on imported foods, it's not just about the reliance on the imported fruits themselves. But it's also the way that that system requires people to be invested in an exploitative relationship with energy companies." 


One of the foods through which we can understand the idea of the cold chain is shave ice.  


"One of the things that really strikes me ... is that there's nothing there's nothing Hawaiian about Hawaiian shave ice," Hobart said. "We do have snow and ice formations at the summit of Mauna Kea and occasionally Haleakalā. But traditionally, Native Hawaiians weren't consuming ice.  Those are kapu spaces, those are sacred spaces. We're not going up there and getting frozen water to consume." 


Shave ice was introduced in Hawaiʻi around the mid-1800s by Japanese immigrants who were working on pineapple and sugar cane plantations. Workers would shave blocks of ice and cover the shavings with sugar or fruit juice – hence the name shave ice. It was a food that helped those who were working in the sun all day cool off. Some workers even opened shops and sold shave ice after work.⁵


Today places like Matsumoto Shave Ice, Waiola Shave Ice, and Island Snow Hawaiʻi are popular tourist destinations, and shave ice has become even more popularized with photos of people like former-President Barack Obama eating shave ice and shows like Hawaiʻi 5-0 featuring its characters consuming the dessert.  


"One of the reasons why I think shave ice becomes what it is … is because it's one of the only foods that makes a rainbow. And that rainbow, in the post statehood era becomes a really potent symbol of Hawaiian state multiculturalism or Hawaiʻi state multiculturalism, and that melting pot that becomes really celebrated," Hobart said. "In that sense, it marks the colonization of Hawaiʻi in a lot of really particular ways. It not only kind of fits into this cold chain, and this over reliance on these energy infrastructures, and indigenizes it in a particular kind of way, but it also kind of aesthetically works to resolve the ethnic tensions that the U.S. was feeling, or the racial anxieties that the U.S. was feeling about Hawaiʻi's inclusion in the United States as a state. … In the post-statehood era, the multiethnic melting pot becomes the thing that makes Hawaiʻi particularly celebrated and attractive in the U.S. nation state. And shave ice kind of fits right into that narrative." 


Aside from shave ice, SPAM is another food that many people strongly associate with Hawaiʻi. 


SPAM was introduced in Hawaiʻi during World War II, providing a non-perishable food for soldiers. Many credit Barbara Funamura, a Japanese American woman, with creating the first SPAM musubi. Even after WWII, many people continued eating SPAM as it was cheap and people could prepare it in a variety of ways.⁶ SPAM has even found its way into Hawaiʻi fast food with chains like McDonalds serving a SPAM rice and egg platter. The "What is SPAM Brand" page on the SPAM website even has a note saying that the state of Hawaiʻi collectively consumes 7 million cans of SPAM each year. And the prominence of SPAM in Hawaiʻi doesn't stop there. Articles associating SPAM with Hawaiʻi tout it as a "comfort food" that has "helped shape Hawaiʻi." 


"People … love spam and eat spam, and I love spam, and I eat spam. ... It's one of the things that reminds me of home. But it also reminds me that our relationships to home or relationships to Hawaiʻi are really complicated. And they're shaped by colonialism in ways that are very difficult to extract ourselves from," Hobart said. "One of the reasons why it's so complicated for me is because people have deep emotional investments in these foods. And those emotional investments don't just have to do with identity politics or colonialism, but it has to do also with like, what your grandmother used to cook for you, how your family expresses love, how your family expresses care for one another." 


Although it can be difficult to reconcile history with our personal attachments to these foods, Hobart said something we can do is educate ourselves. 


"I think the more that we kind of lean into that political consciousness and the more that we can kind of think about and really understand in a deep way the history of colonialism in Hawaiʻi, the better equipped we will be to think about these very real and everyday challenges that people have in regard to food access, healthy eating, and sustainability." 

~ Na Maris Tasaka, Communications Assistant


Picture 712 Hiilei compressed2

Hi'ilei is shown here in blue hat participating in a panel on food systems in the hale halawai on Kaho'olawe with a group of physicians, farmers and foodies focused on 'Ai Pono, Ola Pono in 2012.  L-R:  Dr. Emmett Aluli, Hi'ilei Hobart, Elise Dela-Cruz-Talbert, Robina Campaniano and Sandra McGuinness.   Photo above is at Pu'u Huluhulu in July 2019 where Hi'ilei volunteered in the kitchen.







Hiʻilei Julia Kawehipuaakahaopulani Hobart is an assistant professor of anthropology at the University of Texas at Austin with a food studies PhD from NYU. Her research focuses on Indigenous foodways, Pacific Island studies, and settler colonialism. You can read more about her work and studies at her website www.hiokinai.com/.  


Further Readings/Media


  1. Cho, John J, et al. “Hawaiian Kalo, Past and Future.” Sustainable Agriculture, Feb. 2007.   
  2. Kent, George. “Food Security in Hawai'i.” Food and Power in Hawai'i, University of Hawai'i Press, 2016, pp. 28–45.  
  3. History.” Matson
  4. Hawai'i Department of Health, 2018, Good Food For All: Advancing Health Equity Through Hawai'i's Food System.
  5. Li, Ang. “Asian American Chefs Are Embracing Spam. But How Did the Canned Meat Make Its Way Into Their Cultures?” TIME, TIME USA, LLC, 28 May 2019, 11:01.  
  6. Hill, Tiffany. “The Colorful History of Shave Ice.” Hawaiian Airlines.
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I ka ‘ōlelo no ke ola, I ka ‘ōlelo no ka make.

Words can heal, words can destroy.                                                 

~ Pukui, #1191







Why are Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders hesitant to get the COVID-19 vaccine?  

We are asked this repeatedly. Ironic, because the medical practitioners and epidemiologists asking this question are themselves taught to assess and evaluate [1, 2] before recommending a certain treatment, prescription, strategy or action.

Why then are communities of color not afforded the same respect for inquiry into the vaccines as are others? [3]

The term vaccine hesitancy indicts the individual [4] for asking questions.  Is it not smart to to seek as much information as possible before making a decision, especially about something as important as what might be injected into your body or that of a family member? That's caution. Care. That's assuring our families are protected.


The Native Hawaiian resource management community has in recent years articulated the ages-old practice of kilo [5]. Farmers, fishers, wayfinders, gatherers, even warriors first gather information by scanning the environment and observing patterns before making decisions to take action.  That's traditional wisdom.

We are all striving to stem the daily reports of infections and deaths. As clinicians, researchers, social workers, public health administrators and communicators, what is gained by blaming our people--or worse, those people--for being hesitant?  We should be asking ourselves, what I can I do to assure my families, my communities have the confidence in the vaccines and vaccination process? 

Am I hearing the questions being asked? Can I provide accurate and timely information? Who is best to deliver the information:  community advocates, faith leaders, doctors and scientists from my own community, Uncle Kalani at the family BBQ, or me? Are my tactics direct, my messages easily understood?

Let us stop accusing those we serve of being hesitant and take responsibility for inspiring confidence.

~ na Kim Ku'ulei Birnie


 Horizontsl 1

1. Rapid Community Assessment Guide, CDC

2. Health Impact Assessment, CDC

3. Strategic Approaches to Communicating About Health Equity and Disparities [VIDEO:  57:20], Society for Health Communications

4. Vaccine Hesitancy is a Scapegoat for Structural Racism, JAMA

5. Kilo as Practiced by Our ‘Āina Stewards‘Āina Stewards, Hawai‘i Land Trust

Photo:  Hawaiian Fisherman @1915.  Commons Wikimedia.

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Data Justice report cover 2021 Feb


Papa Ola Lokahi collaborated with Hawai'i Budget & Policy Center to assess how the monies brought in to state agencies for Native Hawaiians were being used.  This is a report of our findings.


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